Croatia

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Economics (2009)

GNI per capita

USD8,060

GNI per capita (PPP)

USD12,750

Agriculture

8%

Industry

28%

Services

64%

 

Management

 

Hrvatske Vode (Croatian Waters) is the principal central government agency in charge of water resource management. Municipal entities operate on a city level, for example the Split Water and Sewerage Company (SWSC). The Law on Waters and the Law on Water Management Financing were passed in 1995. Croatia aims to bring its environmental standards into line with EU standards with the long term aim of meeting EU accession requirements. At the same time, effluent discharges to bathing waters are being treated as part of reviving the Dalmatian Coast’s tourist industry. The Government seeks to raise the public water supply connection rate from 62% in 1991 and 73% by 2000 to 90% by 2005. Distribution losses were 46% in 1998 and 43% in 1999 and rose to 46% in 2003, where they remained in 2008. During the 1991-92 war, 15-20% of the water system was destroyed. Overall, in 2005 75% of people had piped water, 40% sewerage and 12% sewage treatment.

 

Development of sewage treatment

 

Sewerage and sewage treatment

2000

2005

2006

2007

Tertiary

0%

0%

0%

0%

Secondary

2%

9%

9%

22%

Primary

7%

19%

20%

7%

Sewerage only

-

-

-

-

Not connected

-

-

-

-

 

The development of the sewerage networks is directly related to the size of urban settlements:

 

Population

None

Partial

Extensive

2,000 – 10,000

85

63

41

10,000 – 50,000

0

4

27

> 50,000

0

0

7

Total

85

67

75

 

 

Urban Population

2010 (million)

2.546

2025 (million)

2.722

Urbanisation (2010)

58%

Urbanisation (2025)

64%

 

Implementation

 

From 1995, the complete regulation of water resources and water management in Croatia is based on the Water Act, which includes a number of sub legal acts envisaged by the Act. Under the legislative framework, administration and inspection is carried out by the State Water Directorate. The Croatian Waters company is responsible for carrying out water management activities as defined by the Water Act, in collaboration with local enterprises in various catchment areas. Croatian Waters also co-ordinate and finance realisation of the surface water quality monitoring programme which is carried out by the authorised laboratories.

 

Urban Data

Served by piped water

96%

Access to sewerage

79%

Wastewater treated

40%

 

Water quality and environmental spending

 

Surface waters (rivers, lakes and artificial lakes), groundwaters and coastal sea areas are classified into four classes, depending on their utilisation and quality. Corresponding new environmental quality standards (of maximum allowable concentrations) are now under preparation. There are no emission standards or guidelines at the national level. The Directorate for Environment estimated that USD152million was spent on environmental protection in 1995. It can also be assumed that non-environmental expenditures are included in this figure.

 

Freshwater

Annual availability (2000)

37.7km3

Per capita

23,890m3

Annual withdrawal (2000)

0.8km3

Domestic (1987)

50%

Industrial (1987)

50%

 

A sewage treatment works for Rijeka (260,000 people, including eight adjacent municipalities) was built in 1999 for EUR13million, 50% coming from the EBRD. BWI is involved in the DEM400million Zagreb sewage treatment project with a 1.5million PE capacity. The financing of this work has involved mobilising DEM150million of project finance and DEM250million from multilateral loans and sponsor finance and the facility entered service in 2002.

 

Groundwater

Annual availability (1998)

11km3

Per capita

2,459m3

 

Major Cities

City

2000

2015

Comments

Zagreb

1,067,000

1,183,000

Sewage treatment facility concession

 

KfW, on behalf of the German Government, is to support a project with Aquamundo for upgrading wastewater discharges into the Adriatic Sea. This is designed to help restore tourism. The coast has 150,000 permanent inhabitants and some 250,000 summer visitors. KfW made a grant of EUR37.5million for this project in 2003. 

 

Private sector contracts awarded (Please see the relevant company entry for details)

Location

Contract

Company

Vodice

23 year wastewater DFBOT

WTE

Zagreb

BOT

sewage treatment

ZOV

 

 

Private sector company operations (Please see the relevant company entry for details)

Company

Parent company (country)

Population served

Water

Sewerage

Total

WTE

EVN (Austria)

0

10,000

10,000

ZOV

RWE (Germany)/EVN (Austria)

0

750,000

750,000

 

 

Sources:

 

MZOPU (2003) State of the Environment Report – Republic of Croatia, MZOPU, Zagreb

 

Bajo A & Filipović B (2008) The Efficiency of the Water Supply in Croatia. Institut ZA Javne Financije, Newsletter 37, July 2008, Zagreb, Croatia.