Poland

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Economics (2009)

 

GDP per capita

USD12,260

GDP per capita (PPP)

USD18,440

Agriculture

5%

Industry

31%

Services

64%

 

Laws and spending

 

A second National Environment Plan, launched in 2000, drew up longer term targets. These call for suitable levels of service, provision of increasing treatment standards with time, financial incentives for the private sector and protection of consumer interests. Tariffs are to be established by water companies and approved by the local community with yearly revisions and the prospect of differential charging.

 

There are 700 water utilities, 300 of which serve urban areas. In 2000, the average water price was USD0.84 per m3. Environmental spending was USD2.1billion in 1998, up from USD0.8billion in 1990, with 40% of this going to water (equivalent to 0.6% of GNP). In 2000, estimates by the Government point to USD700million pa being spent on water related work in Poland. Some 5% of this is currently coming from foreign investment. The compliance costs for water and wastewater upgrading and extending for EU accession has been variously estimated at between EUR18billion and EUR40billion in 1998, with USD2.6billion required for sewage treatment works and USD4billion for sewerage. Poland was granted derogation until 2015 for complying with the UWWTD because of the estimated cost of compliance. For example, in 2000, 11% of the rural population was served by wastewater treatment plants.

 

The EU has allocated EUR6billion in funding for 2007-13 to support Poland’s EUR12billion investment plan for water and wastewater. This includes 30,000 of sewerage systems at EUR5billion, upgrading 569 WWTWs and building 180 new WWTWs for EUR3.1billion. In addition, annual spending on the water network is in excess of EUR1billion per annum.

 

Urban Population

Total (2010, million)

23.187

Total (2025, million)

23.287

In urban areas (2010)

60.96%

In urban areas (2025)

63.00%

 

Pollution and problems

 

Polish data is on the harsh side because the worst performing parameters are used as definitive. Surveys using biological criteria point to up to 88% of rivers being of class 4 quality in 1990 and 96% in 1995. In 2000, this had fallen to 61% of rivers, but Class 1&2 rivers still only accounted for 3% of the total. Class 4 rivers are those which are biologically dead and whose water cannot be used for agriculture or industry.

 

River water quality (biochemical criteria)

 

Class

1985

1990

1995

2000

2003

1

4.8%

6.0%

2.9%

5%

5%

2

30.3%

27.9%

20.3%

35%

47%

3

27.8%

30.3%

33.8%

40%

36%

4

37.1%

35.8%

43.0%

20%

13%

 

In terms of the Water Framework Directive, 13% of rivers were classified as good or very good (I & II) in 2008, along with 58% being medium quality (III) and 19% being poor or bad (IV & V).

 

Urban Data

Served by piped water

99%

Access to sewerage

84%

With sewage treatment

79%

 

Development of urban water and sewerage infrastructure

 

Treatment level

1995

1998

2000

2002

2003

2005

2009

Tertiary

4%

13%

20%

27%

31%

37%

49%

Secondary

30%

30%

30%

27%

25%

21%

16%

Primary

8%

6%

3%

3%

3%

2%

0%

None

58%

51%

47%

43%

41%

40%

35%

 

In 1992, 48% of the largest industrial sites had no effluent treatment facilities. 17% of all industrial discharges were untreated, with 66% of industrial effluents subject to primary treatment only, and 17% to secondary treatment. 5% of factories had plants with an inadequate treatment capacity. By 2008, 95% of industrial wastes were subject to some form of treatment, the main change having taken place between 2000 and 2002. 

 

An urban/rural divide

 

2004 household connections

‘000

%

Overall – Water connections

32,640

85.4%

Overall – Sewerage connections

22,253

58.3%

Urban – Water connections

22,157

94.4%

Urban – Sewerage connections

19,714

84.0%

Rural – Water connections

10,484

71.3%

Rural – Sewerage connections

2,538

17.3%

 

Between 1990 and 1996, over 900,000 rural households were connected to water supply systems and sewerage coverage grew from 5% in 1995 to 12% by 2000, with a similar improvement in the proportion connected to wastewater treatment plants. Indeed, during 1992-2000, 300 new wastewater treatment works were built each year, one third being secondary or tertiary treatment works. In 2009, 26% of the rural population has its sewage treated. 25% of effluent generation is from rural areas and its lack of treatment means that it has a disproportionate impact.

 

Freshwater

Freshwater withdrawals (2002)

11.13km3

Per capita

304m3

Percentage withdrawn (2000)

30.2m3

Domestic (2000)

13%

Industrial (2000)

79%

Agriculture (2000)

8%

 

PSP prospects

 

The pace of PSP remains a leisurely one. In Warsaw urban water and sewerage services such as the second Warsaw STW have been reconstructed as limited companies, but remain directly under the control of the municipalities and the Government’s Environmental Council. Effectively all aspects of the operation of water and sewerage services are in the hands of the local authorities. It is up to each authority to decide if PSP will take place. The major French water companies have been helping to frame the PSP process. While the Government remains committed to privatising water and sewerage services, there is some reluctance at municipal level. SAUR’s experience in Gdansk may alleviate this.

 

Water companies noted

 

SAUR is involved in the management of Gdansk’s water and sewerage facilities. SAUR Neptun Gdansk has increased the proportion of water that meets the Government’s water quality criteria from 8% in 1992 to 25% in 1997. In November 1999 SAUR gained a EUR40million 25 year water and wastewater management and renewal contract for Ruda Slaska, which has a population of 170,000.

 

Groundwater resources

 

Total recharge (1998, km³)

36.0

Per capita (1998, m3)

931

Withdrawals (1990, km³)

2.0

For domestic use (1990)

70%

For industry (1990)

30%

For agriculture (1990)

0%

 

City Study: Warsaw

 

Central Warsaw has 1.64million inhabitants, 98% receiving potable water and 95% connected to the sewerage network. One sewage treatment work treats the effluents of 500,000-600,000 people. The rest of the effluent is directly discharged into the Vistula River. Approximately 25% of the population is subject to water shortages, partly due to a 113% increase in distribution losses between 1975 and 1991, at a time when consumption rose by 39%.

 

The EBRD is encouraging Warsaw to float Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Wodociagow I Kananlizacji (MPWiK) in the shorter term, ideally through an IPO. The city’s first STW has a treatment capacity of 240,000m3 per day. Degrémont was involved in the design and construction of the second Warsaw STW and the upgrading of the original STW in a project which is being partially funded by the EBRD. The second STW has a capacity of 112,000m3 per day, serving 300,000 people at a cost of USD128.5million. VE's OTV is involved in the design of a third STW for northern Warsaw, for treating a population equivalent to 850,000 with a treatment capacity of 260,000m3 per day. This project is at the study phase, and more direct methods of private sector finance and involvement are under consideration.

 

MAJOR CITIES

Population

2000

2015

Status

Katowice

3,494,000

3,547,000

-

Warsaw

1,712,000

1,722,000

PSP plans

Lodz

1,053,000

1,061,000

-

Gdansk

893,000

913,000

Management contract since 1995

Krakow

756,000

756,000

BOT plans under consideration

 

A local private sector contract – Aquarius & Co

 

Aquarius & Co, a Warsaw based company was granted a service contract for Piaseczno, a suburb of Warsaw in 1993. In 2003, this was upgraded to a ten year lease contract, serving 52,000 people. The granting of the lease contract reflects on the company’s performance over its first ten years:

 

  • Billings and billing collection increased by 400%
  • Water tariffs increased by 200%
  • Wastewater tariffs increased by 300%
  • Population served rose by 25%

 

The relationship between the company and the municipality has evolved from a very simple contract in 1993, into one with increasing responsibility transferred to Aquarius as the company was able to demonstrate its capabilities and the municipality was able to identify areas where Aquarius was best positioned to assist in its operations. Wastewater treatment capacity has been doubled and 96% of the people in rural areas served now have access to piped water.

 

Private sector contracts awarded (Please see the relevant company entry for details)

Location

Contract

Company

Silesia (two towns)

25 year water and sewerage BOT

VE

Wozniky

10 year water management

VE

Dabrowa

25 year water and sewerage BOT

RWE

Bielsko Biala

Strategic partnership with municipality

UUI

Gdansk

Joint venture

SNG

Miskloc

20 year water and sewerage concession

Pwik w Glogowie

Piaseczno

10 year water & wastewater lease

Aquarius

Drobin

Water management PPP

Remondis Aqua

Toszek

Water management PPP

Remondis Aqua

 

Private sector company operations (Please see the relevant company entry for details)

Company

Parent company (country)

Population served

Water

Sewerage

Total

RWE

RWE (Germany)

135,000

135,000

135,000

VE

Veolia  Environnement (France)

80,000

70,000

80,000

UUI

Veolia  Environnement (France)

300,000

300,000

300,000

Glogowie

Gelsenwasser (Germany)

75,000

75,000

75,000

SNG

SAUR (France)

502,000

550,000

550,000

Aquarius

Aquarius

52,000

52,000

52,000

Remondis Aqua

Remondis (Germany)

20,000

20,000

20,000

 

Sources:

 

Warner, J. (1999). Poland: The Environment in Transition. The Geographical Journal, 165, 209-221.

 

OECD Environmental Performance Review: Poland. OECD, Paris, 2003

 

UKTI (2010) Opportunities in Poland – Environmental Sector. UK Trade & Investment, London, UK

 

EEA (2010) Freshwater (Poland) The state and impacts. SOER 2010, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark