Regulatory framework for drinking water, wastewater discharge and reuse
The following figure depicts the main government bodies responsible for drinking water, wastewater and reuse regulation in the Russian Federation (RF).
Drinking water quality regulations
Drinking water quality in Russia is regulated by public health regulations in accordance with Federal law No. 52-FZ of 1999 on the Sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population. Individual companies and legal entities operating centralised and non-centralised water supply systems are obligated to ensure they comply with the drinking water quality and sanitation rules.
Municipal and industrial wastewater quality regulations
Current Russian legislation sets different procedures for wastewater discharge to the environment and public sewage systems. Regarding discharge to the environment, only wastewater discharged into water bodies, including the sea, is regulated. Discharge of wastewater to land is not a form of organised discharge but is still a common practice in Russia. Legally, this practice is not prohibited but there are no defined wastewater quality standards and procedures. It is a very controversial issue and the practice currently depends on the Rosprirodnadzor because there is no defined regulation for wastewater being discharge to land, such as a permit system. However, according to Federal Law No. 7-FZ, 2002 it is prohibited to discharge wastewater to the environment without permission.
Water reuse regulations
In 2009, the volume of reused water in Russia was estimated at 136.8 km³/yr, which accounted for 78% of total volume of process water used. In Russia, water reuse is mostly performed by industries and the water is used for producing and distributing energy (see following figure).
Water in industry: oil and gas
The oil and gas industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world as it accounts for 6.2 % of all proved oil reserves and 26.6% of all proved gas reserves. It contributes approximately 17% to the nations GDP and more than 40% of the income to the Russian budget (Minenergo, 2009). In Russia, 5 of the top 10 largest oil and gas companies, include Gazprom, Rosneft, Transneft, TNK-BP and Lukoil.
Future regulatory scenario and conclusions
The water and waste water quality standards in Russia are typically more stringent than the international standards but the effectiveness of their implementation and the level of compliance are quite very low, particularly in remote and rural areas. The drinking water quality and the conditions of drinking and household water sources are consistently insufficient. The issues can be attributed to the following:,
List of laws, standards and policies