Regulatory framework for drinking water, wastewater discharge and reuse
Indonesia is a unitary state divided into 33 provinces, which are made up of 400 cities or municipalities known as Kota and districts or regencies known as Kabupaten. Districts and cities are divided into sub-districts. Regencies cover larger, more sparsely populated areas and cities are classified as densely populated urban centres. Jakarta has the status of Special Capital Region, which is equivalent to a province. Each level of the three-tier structure has an executive and a legislature. Provinces, districts and cities are led by governors, regents and mayors, respectively.
Drinking water quality regulations
Law No.23/1992 grants DEPKES with the authority to protect environmental health. The authoritative powers to set drinking water quality standards are based on this law. In 2010, under Minister of Health Decree 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 (Decree No.492/2010) the most recent set of standards was issued, which supersedes the Minister of Health Decree No.907/2002.
Municipal and industrial wastewater quality regulations
Setting wastewater discharge standards is a shared responsibility between the central and local government. Wastewater quality regulations are set at the national level by KLH and these are minimum standards. Local governments have the authority to set more stringent standards and add additional parameters according to local conditions.
Water reuse regulations
Water reuse in Indonesia is conducted on a small scale. As noted above, only 11 cities have a large-scale wastewater collection system and even these only cover a small proportion of the population. As most domestic wastewater is not collected and treated in centralised facilities, there is little scope for the development of reuse for sewage. According to Cipta Karya, there is only one municipal plant for water reuse currently operating in Indonesia, which is a pilot project located in Bali. In the future, government officials expect that water reuse will expand, particularly in areas with high population and high levels of industrial activity where clean water resources are already scarce, such as Jakarta and Bandung. However, there are no concrete plans or targets that have been set at the national level to encourage this.
Water in industry: Oil and gas
The oil and gas industry of Indonesia makes an important contribution to the national economy, contributing approximately 7% to Indonesia’s GDP and 25% to the national budget from tax and non-tax revenues (IPA 2011). Around $10 billion is spent on the exploration, development and production of oil and gas annually. Over the last decade, there has seen a decline in oil production capacities due to maturation of the oil fields with little development in new resources. This has led to Indonesia’s transition from the position of a net exporter of oil to that of a net importer. Gas production accounts for 2.6% of total world output.
Future regulatory scenario and conclusions
Environmental quality is moving up the policy agenda in Indonesia, evidenced by Law 32/2009 on environmental management, which reflects the international good practice in environmental regulation. The law includes further provisions, which will help to strengthen the implementation of wastewater standards, protect drinking water sources and control of pollution to water:
List of laws, standards and policies